vibudh is talking

There are some limited sized images that can be used in the facebook chat.

To have them on your chat all you need to do is just copy the stuff below and paste it in your chat:


[[255006724575192]] [[255006727908525]] [[255006737908524]] [[255006734575191]] [[255006731241858]]
[[255006827908515]] [[255006831241848]] [[255006824575182]] [[255006817908516]] [[255006821241849]]
[[255006874575177]] [[255006871241844]] [[255006884575176]] [[255006877908510]] [[255006881241843]]
[[255006934575171]] [[255006931241838]] [[255006941241837]] [[255006944575170]] [[255006937908504]]
[[255007004575164]] [[255007001241831]] [[255006994575165]] [[255006997908498]] [[255006991241832]]
[[255007084575156]] [[255007101241821]] [[255007077908490]] [[255007091241822]] [[255007081241823]]

2. Jack Sparrow

[[298356520217565]] [[298356516884232]] [[298356506884233]] [[298356510217566]]
[[298356513550899]] [[298356620217555]] [[298356606884223]] [[298356616884222]]
[[298356610217556]] [[298356613550889]] [[298356673550883]] [[298356676884216]]
[[298356666884217]] [[298356680217549]] [[298356670217550]] [[298356740217543]]
[[298356733550877]] [[298356743550876]] [[298356730217544]] [[298356736884210]]
[[298356823550868]] [[298356810217536]] [[298356820217535]] [[298356826884201]]
[[298356813550869]] [[298356906884193]] [[298356896884194]] [[298356900217527]]
[[298356903550860]] [[298356893550861]] [[298356950217522]] [[298356946884189]]

3. Superman

[[299528860107644]] [[299528863440977]] [[299528866774310]] [[299528856774311]]
[[299528870107643]] [[299528950107635]] [[299528943440969]] [[299528946774302]]
[[299528953440968]] [[299528956774301]] [[299529013440962]] [[299529016774295]]
[[299529010107629]] [[299529003440963]] [[299529006774296]] [[299529060107624]]
[[299529063440957]] [[299529066774290]] [[299529070107623]] [[299529073440956]]
[[299529173440946]] [[299529183440945]] [[299529180107612]] [[299529176774279]]
[[299529186774278]] [[299529243440939]] [[299529236774273]] [[299529240107606]]

4. Elmo

[[302117289844540]] [[302117283177874]] [[302117276511208]] [[302117279844541]] [[302117286511207]] [[302117366511199]]
[[302117369844532]] [[302117373177865]] [[302117383177864]] [[302117379844531]] [[302117426511193]] [[302117436511192]]
[[302117429844526]] [[302117423177860]] [[302117433177859]] [[302117523177850]] [[302117529844516]] [[302117526511183]]
[[302117536511182]] [[302117533177849]] [[302117606511175]] [[302117596511176]] [[302117599844509]] [[302117593177843]]
[[302117603177842]] [[302117646511171]] [[302117649844504]] [[302117659844503]] [[302117656511170]] [[302117653177837]]
[[302117706511165]] [[302117703177832]] [[302117699844499]] [[302117709844498]] [[302117696511166]] [[302117749844494]]

5. Troll face

[[242538225822042]] [[242538222488709]] [[242538232488708]] [[242538219155376]] [[242538229155375]] [[242538339155364]]
[[242538335822031]] [[242538342488697]] [[242538345822030]] [[242538349155363]] [[242538392488692]] [[242538395822025]]
[[242538399155358]] [[242538402488691]] [[242538405822024]] [[242538475822017]] [[242538472488684]] [[242538489155349]]
[[242538492488682]] [[242538485822016]] [[242538562488675]] [[242538565822008]] [[242538569155341]] [[242538575822007]]
[[242538572488674]] [[242538612488670]] [[242538625822002]] [[242538619155336]] [[242538622488669]] [[242538615822003]]
[[242538675821997]] [[242538682488663]] [[242538672488664]] [[242538679155330]] [[242538685821996]] [[242538742488657]]

6. Mr. Bean

[[255016264574238]] [[255016271240904]] [[255016277907570]]
[[255016267907571]] [[255016274574237]] [[255016384574226]]
[[255016387907559]] [[255016394574225]] [[255016401240891]]
[[255016391240892]] [[255016464574218]] [[255016454574219]]
[[255016457907552]] [[255016461240885]] [[255016451240886]]
[[255016537907544]] [[255016531240878]] [[255016534574211]]
[[255016541240877]] [[255016527907545]] [[255016634574201]]

I hope you guys enjoy it on your chat, I ll shortly tell you how it is done so that you can yourself add a picture of your own in the chat!!


For a system defined by its state space variables, it is possible to determine the controllability, observability and hence the stability of the system using MATLAB. We will be discuss the same here with the help of an example.

A system is said to be controllable if we can transform the state of a system from xo to x(t) with the help of a control function u(t) over a finite period of time. If from measurements of output y(t) taken over a finite period of time, state of  a system x(t) can be determined, then the system is observable.

If a system is both controllable and observable then we can say that the system is stable.

Consider a linear time invariant(LTI) system described by the state equations:

x = A x + B u

y = C x + D u

Here x, y are the state variables, u represents the unit step response and A, B, C, D are the constants which depend on the system.

For a model with Nx states, Ny outputs, and Nu inputs:

  • a is an Nx-by-Nx real- or complex-valued matrix.
  • b is an Nx-by-Nu real- or complex-valued matrix.
  • c is an Ny-by-Nx real- or complex-valued matrix.
  • d is an Ny-by-Nu real- or complex-valued matrix.

sys = ss(a,b,c,d,Tscreates the discrete-time model

with sample time Ts (in seconds). Set Ts = -1 or Ts = [] to leave the sample time unspecified.

Matlab Code:-

a=[0 1 0; 0 0 1; -6 -11 -6];

b=[0; 0; 2];

c=[1 0 0];


sys = ss(a,b,c,d);                                %Creating the state space model

xo=[0 0 0];                                           %Setting initial conditions


step(sys);                                               %for step response

ob = obsv(sys);                                   %for calculating observability

unob = length(a)-rank(ob)             %for calculating unobservability

ct = ctrb(sys);                                      %for calculating controllability

unct = length(a)-rank(ct)                %for calculating uncontrollability

eigen = eig(a)                                        %for obtaining the eigen values


unob = 0

unct =0

eigen = -1.0000



As the system is controllable and observable, hence we can say that the system is stable.

Most of the circuits in Control System today are represented by simple blocks that help us understand the function of each block in a better way. Is also helps the designers to easily make amendments in the circuit for better functionality and testing purpose. But the problem with Block Diagrams is that having blocks and their feedbacks makes the transfer function on the system to tedious to calculate.

Here we are going to study block reduction using MATLAB. The blocks connected in series, parallel and as feedbacks are at times very tedious to compute. MATLAB allows solving of such blocks directly using some functions that is being discussed below with the help of the example. Here we have to calculate C(s)/R(s), that is taken as T(s).

The MATLAB code for the above problem is:

num1 = [1 2];
den1 = [3 1 0];
G1 = tf(num1, den1)                      %Making G1 as the tranfer function
G2 = tf( [2], [1 7] )
G3 = tf( [1 5], [1 6 3 ] )
G4 = tf( [1], [1 0] )

T1 = parallel(G1, G2)                   %as G1 and G2 are in parallel
T2 = series(T1, G3)                       %as T1 and G3 are in series
T = feedback(T2, G4, -1)            %as G4 is the negative feedback

Here we use the tf() function to get the transfer function
parallel() and series() functions according to the requirement
and the feedback() function for feedback.

The output for the above code is as follows:

s + 2
3 s^2 + s

Transfer function:
s + 7

Transfer function:
s + 5
s^2 + 6 s + 3

Transfer function:


Transfer function:
7 s^2 + 11 s + 14
3 s^3 + 22 s^2 + 7 s

Transfer function:
7 s^3 + 46 s^2 + 69 s + 70
3 s^5 + 40 s^4 + 148 s^3 + 108 s^2 + 21 s

Transfer function:
7 s^4 + 46 s^3 + 69 s^2 + 70 s
3 s^6 + 40 s^5 + 148 s^4 + 115 s^3 + 67 s^2 + 69 s + 70

Here we can see that the transfer function for the block diagram is very complex and tedious to deduce. Which can be obtained by using MATLAB very easily.

Google is Fun!

Pacman On Google

One of my favourite childhood games that I love a lot even today, Pacman, can be played on Google even today. Google allows its users to directly play the game without having to install anything. The interesting part is that you can use multiple player by inserting a coin. Have fun!!

Google Gravity

Google Gravity is some fun and is definitely worth trying. All you need to do is just type in the search tab “google gravity” and then hit the “I’m feeling lucky” button and have fun. But before doing that you will have to ensure that you have selected the option “Never Show Instant Results” in the setting. You can also go the link below to experience it.

In Computer Science, counting sort is a way of sorting of a collection of numbers found in a predefined range. This property is used in Counting Sort technique to make the running time linear in the number of items and the maximum key values. So it is very useful in situations where the number of items are significantly larger than the range. Counting Sort in used mostly as a subroutine in Radix Sort, which makes the sorting technique efficient even with larger values of the range.

A basic algorithm of the Counting Sort is given below that is used and discussed in most places:

/*array[] is the original array with length array.lenght
f[]  and cf[] are the frequency and cumulative frequency with length r(length of the range)
s[] is the sorted array

for( int i = 0; i < array.length; i++)
f[array[i]]++;                                        //Calculating the Frequency for each element

cf[0] = f[0];                                            //Calculating the Cumulative Frequency for each element
for(int i = 1; i < r-1; i++)
cf[i] = f[i] + cf[i-1];

for( int i = n-1; i >= 0; i–)
{ s[cf[a[i]]] = a[i];


We can see that in the algorithm discussed worldwide there is use of 2 extra arrays for calculating the frequency and cumulative frequency for the elements. Now there is a simpler method for the Counting Sort that we are going to discuss below:

/*array[] is the original array with length array.lenght
f[] is the frequency with length r(length of the range)
s[] is the sorted array

for( int i = 0; i < array.length; i++)
f[array[i]]++;                                        //Calculating the Frequency for each element

int count =0;                                        //variable for the value of sorted elements
for( int i = 0; i<r; i++)                      //putting the value one by one
while ( f[i] > 0 )
{s[count] = i;

I consider this algorithm better for Counting sort method as it is a simpler method with lesser steps and does not uses an extra array for storing the cumulative frequency of the array.

This blog was written when the Facebook Timeline was not public. At that time it was only for the Facebook developers, who develop applications and games on facebook. So in this blog we have discussed how to register as a facebook developer by following some simple steps. Once you are registered as a developer you can enjoy your own perks for being a developer. As its facebook’s mentality to offer new things to its developers before making it public. So even if you do have your facebook timeline activated, it is still advisable to register as a facebook developer for the privileges.

Facebook developer team has been very active in introducing new features and facilities to its users keeping in mind the simplicity of using the site. With so many users and even more updates there was a need to manage the updates in a more efficient way and hence as a result they are launching this “Timeline”. The design is not only cool looks but also is very simple to use and access older posts. Have a look at my Facebook profile which has this timeline activated.

Facebook Timeline

This feature of Facebook is currently reserved for the developers and will be public from after some days.  So you can always wait for this to come or else you can follow some simple steps to get it right now by becoming a developer. The developers are the privilege ones and most of the new features are firstly introduced to the developers. So its advisable to get before most of your friends get it by following some simple steps.

Step1 : Open the link Allow permission and then you will be directed to the developers page as shown in image1.
Step2 : Click on Apps on the facebook header. Now you will be directed to the link as shown in image2.
Step3 : Click on the tab Create New App then mention the Display Name and Namespace. (Ref. image3)
Step4 : Click on Open Graph, select Getting Started. (Ref. image4)
Step5 : Now you have to mention the two boxes with any relevant description. It could be like People can “watch” a “movie” or “read” a “book”. You can also try things like “fly” a “jet” and click on Get started. (Ref. image5)
Step6 :  Click on “save and next” to the newly directed page then to the new page that appears again click on “save and next”. Now click on save and finish to make the App. So now you have successfully created a Facebook App. (Ref. image 6,7 and 8)
Step7 : Now go back to your account and you will get an option to Get the Timeline. (Ref image9) Get it by clicking on the option “Get it Now”. If the  option to get the timeline doesn’t appear then you will get it as soon as you refresh your page.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Congratulations you have successfully activated your Facebook timeline! Enjoy.
Do add a cover to your profile before you share it with your friends.

India’s Victory!
The hole country rejoices as Annaji ends his fast this morning after the Lok Sabha has passed the resolution containing the all the three important demands put forward by the India Against Corruption (IAC) which was enforced by the 13 long days of fasting by Annaji and a national movement to support the cause. Really a very important day for the country which seemed entrapped in the vicious circle of corruption as these aim to set the country free from corruption.

The whole nation fought for the cause and the fury which was inculcated by a series of mega scams took the form of expression when people all across the nation came on street to support Annaji. This was really creditable on the part of the citizens of the country as there was not a glimpse of violence in any of these protests.

When you really fight hard against something it shows the degree of hatred you have against that stigma. The intensity shown by the people in this movement actually implies that they want to eradicate every scar of corruption from India. Now that the Lok Sabha has passed the major points of the Jan Lokpal Bill the question that arises is that “Is this bill enough to eradicate corruption?”

In the country where from Prime Minister to a peon at a government organisation is accused of being corrupt. I don’t think this bill is enough to eradicate corruption. The key to eliminate corruption lies in the hands of the citizens. Its the common man that has to speak and react against any form of corruption. Once this common man gets involved with these activities I am sure we will free our country from corruption and that will actually be India’s Victory against corruption!